The Ancient Hymn of Christ the King: Laudes Regiae

Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ Commands! 

Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe

The ancient hymn: Laudes Regiae is sung at the Installation Mass of Popes, Coronations of the Holy Roman Emperor, etc. AND on today’s Feast of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe

It’s a beautiful text, check it out! After the text, there are a few links to different versions and a the history of the Liturgy and naming of today’s Feast!

Latin text
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Exaudi, Christe
Exaudi, Christe
Ecclesiae santae Dei salus perpetua
Redemptor mundi, tu illam adiuva
Sancta Maria, tu illam adiuva
Sancta Mater Ecclesiae, tu illam adiuva
Regina Apostolorum, tu illam adiuva
Sancte Michael, Gabriel et Raphael tu illam adiuva
Sancte Ioannes Baptista, tu illam adiuva
Sancte Ioseph, tu illam adiuva
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Exaudi, Christe.
N., Summo Pontifici et universali Pape, vita!
Salvator mundi, tu illum adiuva
Sancte Petre, tu illum adiuva
Sancte Paule, tu illum adiuva
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Exaudi, Christe.
Exaudi, Christe
Episcopis catholicae et apostolicae fidei cultoribus,
eorumque curis fidelibus, vita!
Salvator mundi, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Andrea, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Iacobe, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Ioannes, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Thoma, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Iacobe, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Philippe, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Bartholomaee, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Matthaee, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Simon, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Thaddaee, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Matthia, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Barnaba, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Luca, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Marce, tu illos adiuva
Sancti Timothee et Tite, vos illos adiuvate
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Exaudi, Christe.
Exaudi, Christe
Sancti Protomartyres Romani, vos illos adiuvate
Sancte Ignati, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Polycarpe, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Cypriane, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Bonifati, tu illos adiuva’
Sancte Stanislae, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Thoma, tu illos adiuva
Sancti Ioannes et Thoma vos illos adiuvate
Sancte Iosaphat, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Paule, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Ioannes et Isaac, vos illos adiuvate
Sancte Petre, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Carole, tu illos adiuva
Sancta Agnes, tu illos adiuva
Sancta Caecilia, tu illos adiuva
Omnes sancti martyres, vos illos adiuvate
Sancte Clemens tu illos adiuva
Sancte Athanasi, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Leo Magne, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Gregorio Magne, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Ambrosi, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Augustine, tu illos adiuva
Sancti Basili et Gregori, vos illos adiuvate
Sancte Ioannes, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Martine, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Patrici, tu illos adiuva
Sancti Cyrille et Methodi, vos illos adiuvate
Sancte Carole, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Roberte, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Francisce, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Ioannes Nepomucene, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Pie, tu illos adiuva
Omnes sancti potifices et doctores, vos illos adiuvate
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Exaudi, Christe.
Exaudi, Christe
Populis cunctis et omnibus hominibus bonae voluntatis:
pax a Deo, rerum ubertas morumque civilium rectitudo.
Sancte Antoni, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Benedicte, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Bernarde, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Francisce, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Dominice, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Philippe, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Vincenti, tu illos adiuva
Sancte Ioannes Maria, tu illos adiuva
Sancta Catharina, tu illos adiuva
Sancta Teresia a Iesu, tu illos adiuva
Sancta Rosa, tu illos adiuva
Omnes sancti presbyteri et religiosi, vos illos adiuvate
Omnes sancti laici, vos illos adiuvate
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Ipsi soli imperium,
laus et iubilatio
per saecula saeculorum.
Amen
Christus vincit! Christus regnat! Christus imperat!

Tempora bona habeant! Tempora bona habeant!
Redempti sanguine Christi.
Feliciter! Feliciter! Feliciter!
Pax Christi veniat!
Regnum Christi veniat!
Deo Gratias!
Amen
English translation[8][9]

Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands

Hear, O Christ
Hear, O Christ
Perpetual safety and welfare to the Church of God
Redeemer, Savior, Come to her aid
O Mary blessed Mother. Come to her aid
The Holy Mother of the Church, Come to her aid
Queen of Apostles, Come to her aid
Saint Michael, Gabriel and Raphael, Come to her aid
Saint John the Baptist, Come to her aid
Saint Joseph, Come to her aid
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands

Hear, O Christ
Life and health and blessings to Pope [Name of Pope], our Holy Father, Come to his aid
Saviour of the world, Come to his aid
Saint Peter, Come to his aid
Saint Paul, Come to his aid
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands

Hear, O Christ
The bishops of the Catholic and Apostolic Faith,
faithful to their worries, life!
Saviour of the world, Assist and strengthen him
Saint Andrew, Come to their aid
Saint James, Come to their aid
Saint John, Come to their aid
Saint Thomas, Come to their aid
Saint James, Come to their aid
Saint Philip, Come to their aid
Saint Bartholomew, Come to their aid
Saint Matthew, Come to their aid
Saint Simon, Come to their aid
Saint Jude, Come to their aid
Saint Matthias, Come to their aid
Saint Barnabas, Come to their aid
Saint Luke, Come to their aid
Saint Mark, Come to their aid
Saint Timothy and Titus, Come to their aid
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands
Hear, O Christ
Saint Ignatius, Come to their aid
First Martyrs of the Church of Rome, Come to their aid
Saint Polycarp, Come to their aid
Saint Cyprian, Come to their aid
Saint Boniface, Come to their aid
St. Stanislas, Come to their aid
Saint Thomas, Come to their aid
Saints John and Thomas, Come to their aid
Saint Josaphat, Come to their aid
Saint Paul, Come to their aid
Saint John and Isaac, Come to their aid
Saint Peter, Come to their aid
Saint Charles, Come to their aid
Saint Agnes, ‘Come to their aid
Saint Agnes, Come to their aid
All ye holy martyrs, Come to their aid
Saint Clement, Come to their aid
Saint Athanasius, Come to their aid
Saint Leo the Great, Come to their aid
Saint Gregory the Great, Come to their aid
Saint Ambrose, Come to their aid
Saint Augustine, Come to their aid
Saints Basil and Gregory, Come to their aid
Saint John, Come to their aid
Saint Martin, Come to their aid
Saint Patrick, Come to their aid
Saints Cyril and Methodius, Come to their aid
Saint Charles, Come to their aid
Saint Robert, Come to their aid
Saint Francis, Come to their aid
Saint John of Nepomuk, Come to their aid
Saint Pius X, Come to their aid
Church fathers and doctors, Come to their aid
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands

Hear, O Christ
And to all men of good will to all peoples:
Saint Anthony, Come to their aid
Saint Benedict, Come to their aid
Saint Bernard, Come to their aid
Saint Francis, Come to their aid
Saint Dominic, Come to their aid
Saint Philip, Come to their aid
Saint Vincent, Come to their aid
Saint John Mary,, Come to their aid
Saint Catherine, Come to their aid
Saint Teresa of Jesus, Come to their aid
Saint Rose, Come to their aid
“All ye holy priests and religious, Come to their aid
All ye holy lay people, Come to their aid
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands

To him alone be authority,
praise and rejoicing,
endless ages of ages.
Amen
Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands

May they have favourable times!
May those redeemed by the Blood of Christ have favourable times
Happily! Happily! Happily!
May the peace of Christ come!
May the reign of Christ come!
Thanks be to God’
Amen

A very unique version:

From Rome:

From St. John Cantius in Chicago:

From the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, DC:

On Organ:

From our Passionist Nuns in Whitesville:

The Feast of Christ the King was established by Pope Pius XI in 1925 as an antidote to secularism, a way of life which leaves God out of man’s thinking and living and organizes his life as if God did not exist. The feast is intended to proclaim in a striking and effective manner Christ’s royalty over individuals, families, society, governments, and nations.

Today’s Mass establishes the titles for Christ’s royalty over men: 1) Christ is God, the Creator of the universe and hence wields a supreme power over all things; “All things were created by Him”; 2) Christ is our Redeemer, He purchased us by His precious Blood, and made us His property and possession; 3) Christ is Head of the Church, “holding in all things the primacy”; 4) God bestowed upon Christ the nations of the world as His special possession and dominion.

Today’s Mass also describes the qualities of Christ’s kingdom. This kingdom is: 1) supreme, extending not only to all people but also to their princes and kings; 2) universal, extending to all nations and to all places; 3) eternal, for “The Lord shall sit a King forever”; 4) spiritual, Christ’s “kingdom is not of this world”. — Rt. Rev. Msgr. Rudolph G. Gandas

CHRIST THE KING AS REPRESENTED IN THE LITURGY

The liturgy is an album in which every epoch of Church history immortalizes itself. Therein, accordingly, can be found the various pictures of Christ beloved during succeeding centuries. In its pages we see pictures of Jesus suffering and in agony; we see pictures of His Sacred Heart; yet these pictures are not proper to the nature of the liturgy as such; they resemble baroque altars in a gothic church. Classic liturgy knows but one Christ: the King, radiant, majestic, and divine.

With an ever-growing desire, all Advent awaits the “coming King”; in the chants of the breviary we find repeated again and again the two expressions “King” and “is coming.” On Christmas the Church would greet, not the Child of Bethlehem, but the Rex Pacificus — “the King of peace gloriously reigning.” Within a fortnight, there follows a feast which belongs to the greatest of the feasts of the Church year — the Epiphany. As in ancient times oriental monarchs visited their principalities (theophany), so the divine King appears in His city, the Church; from its sacred precincts He casts His glance over all the world….On the final feast of the Christmas cycle, the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, holy Church meets her royal Bridegroom with virginal love: “Adorn your bridal chamber, O Sion, and receive Christ your King!” The burden of the Christmas cycle may be summed up in these words: Christ the King establishes His Kingdom of light upon earth!

If we now consider the Easter cycle, the luster of Christ’s royal dignity is indeed somewhat veiled by His sufferings; nevertheless, it is not the suffering Jesus who is present to the eyes of the Church as much as Christ the royal Hero and Warrior who upon the battlefield of Golgotha struggles with the mighty and dies in triumph. Even during Lent and Passiontide the Church acclaims her King. The act of homage on Palm Sunday is intensely stirring; singing psalms in festal procession we accompany our Savior singing: Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit, Rex Christe, “Glory, praise and honor be to Thee, Christ, O King!” It is true that on Good Friday the Church meditates upon the Man of Sorrows in agony upon the Cross, but at the same time, and perhaps more so, she beholds Him as King upon a royal throne. The hymn Vexilla Regis, “The royal banners forward go,” is the more perfect expression of the spirit from which the Good Friday liturgy has arisen. Also characteristic is the verse from Psalm 95, Dicite in gentibus quia Dominus regnavit, to which the early Christians always added, a ligno, “Proclaim among the Gentiles: the Lord reigns from upon the tree of the Cross!” During Paschal time the Church is so occupied with her glorified Savior and Conqueror that kingship references become rarer; nevertheless, toward the end of the season we celebrate our King’s triumph after completing the work of redemption, His royal enthronement on Ascension Thursday.

Neither in the time after Pentecost is the picture of Christ as King wholly absent from the liturgy. Corpus Christi is a royal festival: “Christ the King who rules the nations, come, let us adore” (Invit.). In the Greek Church the feast of the Transfiguration is the principal solemnity in honor of Christ’s kingship, Summum Regem gloriae Christum adoremus (Invit.). Finally at the sunset of the ecclesiastical year, the Church awaits with burning desire the return of the King of Majesty.

We will overlook further considerations in favor of a glance at the daily Offices. How often do we not begin Matins with an act of royal homage: “The King of apostles, of martyrs, of confessors, of virgins — come, let us adore” (Invit.). Lauds is often introduced with Dominus regnavit, “The Lord is King”. Christ as King is also a first consideration at the threshold of each day; for morning after morning we renew our oath of fidelity at Prime: “To the King of ages be honor and glory.” Every oration is concluded through our Mediator Christ Jesus “who lives and reigns forever.” Yes, age-old liturgy beholds Christ reigning as King in His basilica (etym.: “the king’s house”), upon the altar as His throne.

Excerpted from The Church’s Year of Grace, Pius Parsch.

 

“That All Might Sing” – My Paper on Pope St. Pius X’ paper on Church Music and the Chant Method of Justine Ward

For the Feast of Pope St. Pius X:

Originally written for Dr. Katharine Harmon’s History of the Catholic Church in America Class on 11-21-14.

690_Justine_Ward_Gajard_1949I enjoyed writing this piece on how Pope St. Pius X’ document Tra Le Sollecitudini was interpreted and engaged here in America, specifically by Justine Ward, who founded an amazing way of teaching Gregorian Chant to children. Justine started and held the first Congress for Chant in America. “What she wants above all,” wrote Dom Augustine Gatard, O.S.B., Prior of Farnborough Abbey, England, who was at the Congress, “is to put the faithful, all the faithful, in the position to participate actively, as much as possible … in the liturgy and in the chant of the Catholic Church.” (2) She especially encouraged girls’ choirs. (3) In a private audience in 1924, Pope Pius XI gave his Apostolic blessing to her work. (4) Thanks be to God for Justine Ward and the many others who assisted in the beautiful Liturgical Renewal we have had in the Church. May it continue to be renewed and may Justine Ward and St. Pius X, help teach us a little bit about walking the Way of Beauty to Heaven, more specifically through the Heavenly Liturgy.

That All Might Sing: American Catholic Responses to Pope St. Pius X’ Tra le Sollecitudini

John Adams once wrote: “Went in the afternoon, to the Romish Chapel [in Philadelphia]. The scenery and the music are so calculated to take in mankind that I wonder the Reformation ever succeeded … the chanting is exquisitely soft and sweet.” (Chase, 61) While Adams witnessed the beauty of the proper execution of “Romish” chant in October 9, 1774 he never could have envisioned what would one day take place in the country soon to be founded in regards to the proper execution, teaching, and use of Gregorian chant. Throughout the early part of the 20th century a response to Pope St. Pius X’s 1903 Tra le Sollecitudini (Instruction on Sacred Music) was carried out across the globe by Catholic musicians in different ways. Some, embraced the changes wholeheartedly, others chose to implement parts of them with and without proper catechesis. In the United States of America Pius X’s Motu Proprio was embraced particularly by Justine Ward a woman with little musical instruction, but with a passion for music and her new faith. Across the board, the training of the young in the church’s tradition of music was seen as one of the most important responses to Pius X’s instruction on Sacred Music. Ward and others took this to heart in developing programs, which educated the young in methods of chanting and ensured that all might sing.

From 1903 on into the 1920’s and finishing up around the 1950’s what could be called as the last “traditional” Catholic music movement occurred in response to Pius X’s Motu Proprio Tra le Sollecitudini (hereafter referred to as “TLS”). TLS was written and promulgated by Pius X after a series of abuses in regards to music in the liturgy kept happening. Pius ordered that there be two particular types of music to be used in the Roman Liturgy. That is, Gregorian chant, which has been “inherited from the ancient fathers” (Pius X, II 3) and Classic Polyphony. The main reason for these abuses was that the music was becoming quite operatic and theatrical. Instead of being music, which by nature of its’ composition and execution lifted the congregation to God and was a prayer in itself; music in the Sacred Liturgy had become a show, detracting from the sacred action occurring.

As previously stated, throughout the early twentieth century there was a varied array of

Pope St. Pius X

Pope St. Pius X

responses to Pius X’s TLS, one of which was the action of Justine Ward. Ward, thought to have had no formal training in “vocal music, choral music, or pedagogy” (Brancaleone, 7) became known as one of the leading advocates of and promulgators of Gregorian chant in America. Due to her parent’s wishes for her to not pursue a musical degree in Europe, she was left with receiving private musical instruction. (Zuberbueler, 14) Ward, a Catholic convert started to fall in love with Gregorian chant due to her friendship with Fr. Thomas E. Shields and Fr. John B. Young SJ (Brancaleone, 8) and having attended a retreat given “at the Convent of the Sacred Heart in Manhattanville in Harlem” (Brancaleone, 8) by another Jesuit she began to learn the basics of pedagogy (the methods and concepts of teaching) and formulate ideas on how to teach Gregorian Chant to children.

America in the 20th century was still largely protestant, no doubt due to the large number of protestant immigrants who settled the country early on. One has to wonder as to why in 1903 a church, struggling to become better recognized and understood in the mainstream (and mostly protestant) culture would continue to push the use of a language (latin) which was no longer spoken conversationally, in not only their worship but especially in their music. Robert Holzmer S.M. wrote an article about the people not “liking” Gregorian chant in the then-popular Catholic Music journal: The Caecilia. In his article he discusses a few reasons of why Gregorian chant is not liked by the majority of Catholic congregations. Pius X and his Motu Proprio is one of the first “authorities” on the subject that he quotes. Holzmer argues partially that because the pope said it, it must be true, but also from an informed knowledge and understanding of Gregorian chant. “Gregorian Chant is Church music while the other forms are also church music” (241) Holzmer reconnects his future points back to Pius X, reaffirming what he stated of Gregorian chant as having pride of place in the Roman Liturgy, but also acknowledging that other types of music (classical polyphony) can be used as well. Holzmer goes on to state that there are several factors at play with why people don’t like Gregorian chant. Factors such as an ill-trained choir, poor musicianship on behalf of the choir, conductor, and organist, and the basic element of people not understanding the reasons for the use of Gregorian chant or the language it is in. Holzmer closes his article by stating: The most important of all, and, unfortunately, the most neglected. It is the training of the young in music…” (241) Like Ward, Holzmer recognized that without the training of the young in the music of the church, there would never be a hope for “this venerable music…to come back to its rightful domain, when it will be supreme again in fact as it has always been by right?”

Dom G Mercure, a Benedictine Monk of the Monastery of St. Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec wrote in a 1935 issue of The Caecilia: “one of the reasons why Gregorian Chant is not more widespread in ecclesiastical music circles is because the public expect to find in Gregorian chant, or plain chant, the same element of sensible pleasure that is found in profane music or even in religious music other than plain chant.” (213) Pius X in his Motu Proprio TLS knew well the state of music in the church and world. For instance throughout the War Between the States (1861) Union and Confederate Soldiers used hymns as a way of rallying the troops and bringing them comfort from home. Hymns such as the Battle Hymn of the Republic, or Dixie would be heard across the battlefields as soldiers marched. Still others such as Amazing Grace, or It Came Upon the Midnight Clear were sung in many protestant churches at their services. Hymns in the spoken language of the people gathered, tended to have more emotional and pleasurable connotations associated with them. As people heard these hymns full of poetic and beautiful language they were attracted to them more and more. The chants of the church in a language unknown seemed distant and did not stir the emotions of the musically untrained ear. How were the Catholic musicians in America supposed to combat these feelings, which could not be ignored?

Justine Ward in her article for the Atlantic Monthly published in 1906 The Reform in Church Music puts it well: “church music is made up of two elements, music and prayer, and it cannot be judged by the value of one of its elements tested as a separate entity . . . “Lex orandi lex cantandi”… Prayer and music must so combine as to make one art; the music must pray, the prayer-must sing…This, then, is the true test of a musical composition for the church: Does it conform to the law of prayer?” (455) According to Justine music should not be judged as solely inspiring emotion or being judged on the music alone, rather music for use in the Liturgy is interwoven with prayer in such a manner that the two cannot be separated. For to separate these two things, which in a way are one, is to tear that work of art apart. To Pius X, Gregorian Chant is the primary music of the church. Holzmer, Ward, and Mercure all agree that there are certain aspects of Gregorian Chant which must be met in order to ensure that it is sung properly and can truly be that unification of “music and prayer” (Ward 455) The promulgation of Gregorian chant in the church as well as to provide the means necessary for its’ survival relied upon the teaching and training of the young in chanting and the proper execution of this tradition. Ward, working with Fr. Shields, Fr. Young, and eventually Dom André Mocquereau (founder of the Solesmes method of Gregorian chant) created a program that would do just that.

Early in her career, after her conversion to the Catholic Church and divorce of her husband (which left her considerably wealthy) Ward started working with Fr. Shields and Young while assisting at the Catholic University of America. After a short period there “in the summer of 1916, Mother Georgia Stevens asked Ward to come to Manhattanville” (Brancaleone 10) In 1917, she with the help of Mother Stevens created the Pius X Institute of Liturgical Music, a school devoted to training teachers and students in not only what was becoming known as the “Ward Method,” but also in other forms of Liturgical Music in the Church. Ward’s method of teaching chant to the young was unique in that it used body movements as a way of understanding rhythm. Through the Pius X Institute and her newfound friendships with Dom Mocquereau, and others Ward began to share her method of teaching Gregorian chant with others in other countries. “In 1925, Ward brought her method to Holland…Belgium, France, England, Ireland, New Zealand, China, and Italy.” (Zuberbueler, 16) For Ward teaching and singing Gregorian chant was a chance at learning, singing, and praying. It was a way of living the liturgical life of the church in a new way.

While Ward worked on the teaching of Gregorian Chant others in America took a different approach to the Pius X’s TLS. According to Paul Hume’s Catholic Church Music, one of the ways in which the objectives of the Motu Proprio were enforced was through the creation of a “White List.” “The “White List” is a list of music approved for use in church by the St. Gregory Society of America. The idea of having a “white list” comes from Pius X: “Still, since modern music has risen mainly to serve profane uses, greater care must be taken with regard to it, in order that the musical compositions of modern style which are admitted in the Church may contain nothing profane, be free from reminiscences of motifs adopted in the theaters, and be not fashioned even in their external forms after the manner of profane pieces.” (Pius X, II 5) This movement in the church away from music of a secular nature was led by Pius X and joined by Ward, the St. Gregory Society of America and others. Ward and the St. Gregory Society of America published hymnals containing chants and hymns, which followed the “Classic Polyphony” called for by Pius X. Pope Pius XII later in 1955, published Musicae Sacrae Disciplina an instruction on the usage of hymns for the liturgy.

In Musicae Sacrae Disciplina, Pius XII says: “We must also hold in honor that music which is not primarily a part of the sacred liturgy, but which by its power and purpose greatly aids religion. This music is therefore rightly called religious music. The Church has possessed such music from the beginning and it has developed happily under the Church’s auspices. As experience shows, it can exercise great and salutary force and power on the souls of the faithful, both when it is used in churches during non-liturgical services and ceremonies, or when it is used outside churches at various solemnities and celebrations.” (Pius XII 36) Granted the usage of hymns was already something that was customary in the church at the time. With the stipulations imposed on music by Pius X, hymns (note: vernacular hymns) were not to be used in the Liturgy, but instead could be used for prayers, gatherings, processions, novenas, etc. In short, they could only be used for celebrations outside of the Liturgy. Gregorian Chant was still the official music of the church and remains so to this day.

For some 60ish years the stipulations imposed by TLS stood and the Ward Method helped ensure its’ future survival. Though as the Church drew closer and closer to the middle of the 20th century the advent of the Second Vatican Council appeared on the horizon. Up until this point Gregorian Chant and Classical Polyphony were the only types of music to be used in the Liturgy. Ward’s method seemed to prosper, for decades, being spread throughout the world. With the end of the 1950’s and the reforms of the Second Vatican Council in sight, church music in America was once again something talked about. Gregorian Chant was the norm for music in parishes; even the smallest tried to create a choir, which would be able to chant the Propers of the Mass. Hymns were sung by Catholics in the 20th century (including some protestant ones) as long as it was for worship outside of Solemn Liturgical Functions.  The renewal of Gregorian Chant in the church was almost complete and there were many to thank for it. The movement of 20th century Catholic Church Music in America was one that will forever define the history of the church here and around the world. The impact of one woman who embraced the call of the Holy Father to return to the sacred traditions of music in the church through the construction of her teaching methods ensured that all, whether young or old could chant with a little effort. For Justine Ward chant could not be “listened to as music” rather through the “ears of faith”(Ward, 460) To her “the music must pray and the prayer must sing” (455) “For the carrying-out of the full ideal demands the co-operation of the entire people, who will no longer assist at, but take part in, the liturgy. This may not be accomplished in a day, but the Church works for the future, and already she is sowing the seeds. The little Catholic school child is learning to pray, not only in words, but also in song; not only in the Church’s language, Latin, but in her musical language,

Chant; and when these children grow up, our choirs will be the whole Catholic world. While the variable and the more elaborate parts of the liturgy will demand the great genius, the great artist, the simpler parts will be taken up spontaneously by the entire congregation; producing the superb contrast of, on the one hand, the perfection of art, and on the other, the majesty of numbers. This is, indeed, nothing new: it is thus that the liturgy is intended to be rendered; it is thus that it has been rendered in the past, and is still rendered in a few centres of Catholic life. It is simply a return to the true ideal, a “renewing of all things in Christ,” a revitalizing, through art, of the spirit of Catholic democracy and universality.” (Ward 462-463)

Justine Ward and others worked tirelessly, embracing the call of the reforms instituted by Pius X and catered them specifically to children. They worked for an idea that would be largely envisioned in coming years by the Second Vatican Council. They worked to ensure that all might sing.

Work Cited

Brancaleone, Francis. “Justine Ward and the Fostering of an American Solesmes Chant Tradition” Sacred Music Fall 2009: 6-26. Print.

Chase, Gilbert. America’s Music New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company, Inc. 1995. Print

Holzmer, Robert. “People don’t Like Gregorian Chant” The Caecilia May 1935: 239-232. Print.

Hume, Paul. Catholic Church Music Binghamton: Vail-Ballou Pres, Inc. 1956. Print.

Mercure, Dom G. “True Church Music Should Calm the Mind Not Minister to the Senses” The Caecilia May 1936: 213-214. Print.

Pius X, Pope. Tra Le Sollecitudini, Vatican City: Vatican State, 1903. Vatican.va

Pius XII, Pope. Musicae Sacrae, Vatican City: Vatican State, 1955. Vatican.va

Ward, Justine B. “The Reform In Church Music” The Atlantic Monthly January 1907:455-463. Print.

Zuberbueler, Amy. “The Ward Method: Chant from the Ground Up” Sacred Music Spring 2006: 14-17. Print.